The Ultimate Guide to the Adapter Design Pattern [2023]

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In software development, design patterns are reusable solutions to common problems that occur in software design. One such pattern is the Adapter Design Pattern, which allows incompatible classes to work together by converting the interface of one class into another interface that clients expect. This pattern is an incredibly useful tool for making different classes and systems work together seamlessly.

In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the Adapter Design Pattern in detail. We'll cover its intent, problem it solves, solution it offers, real-world analogies, structure, pseudocode, applicability, implementation, pros and cons, relations with other patterns, code examples, and more. By the end of this article, you'll have a solid understanding of the Adapter Design Pattern and how to apply it in your own projects.

Table of Contents


The Adapter Design Pattern is a structural pattern that allows two incompatible interfaces to work together. It acts as a bridge between two classes that have incompatible interfaces and provides a way to make them work seamlessly without modifying their source code.

By using the Adapter Design Pattern, you can achieve code reusability, flexibility, and maintainability. It allows you to incorporate existing classes and systems into your new projects without having to make extensive changes to your codebase. This pattern is widely used in a variety of scenarios where different systems or components need to work together harmoniously.


The Adapter Design Pattern is designed to:

  • Convert the interface of a class into another interface that clients expect
  • Allow classes with incompatible interfaces to work together
  • Enable communication and data exchange between different systems or components with minimal code changes


A lego wall

Imagine you have a legacy codebase or a third-party library that you want to use in your project. However, the interface of the legacy code or library doesn't match the interface expected by your new project. Modifying the existing code may be difficult or risky, and reimplementing the functionality from scratch is time-consuming and error-prone.


The Adapter Design Pattern provides a solution to the above problem by introducing an adapter class or object. The adapter class wraps the existing class with an incompatible interface and exposes a compatible interface for clients to use. It acts as a bridge, translating requests from the client to the underlying class and vice versa.

The adapter can be implemented in two ways:

  1. Class Adapter: In this approach, the adapter subclass extends both the target class and the adapted class. It inherits the methods of the adapted class while implementing the target interface. This approach relies on multiple inheritance, which may not be available in all programming languages.

  2. Object Adapter: In this approach, the adapter class has a reference to the adapted class and implements the target interface. The adapter delegates requests from the client to the adapted class, translating them as necessary.

Both approaches achieve the same result, but the choice between them depends on the specific requirements and constraints of your project.

Real-World Analogies

To understand the Adapter Design Pattern better, let's look at a few real-world analogies:

  • Power Adapter: When you travel to a foreign country with different electrical socket standards, you need a power adapter to connect your electronic devices to the local power supply. The power adapter acts as a bridge between your device and the power socket, allowing them to work together despite the incompatibility.

  • USB to Ethernet Adapter: If your laptop doesn't have an Ethernet port, but you need to connect it to a wired network, you can use a USB to Ethernet adapter. The adapter translates the USB interface of your laptop into an Ethernet interface that can communicate with the network.

  • Language Translator: When you encounter a language barrier, you can use a language translator to facilitate communication. The translator acts as an adapter, converting the messages between two different languages and enabling understanding between the parties involved.

These analogies demonstrate the concept of adapting one system or component to work with another by providing a compatible interface.


The Adapter Design Pattern consists of the following components:

  • Target: This defines the interface that the client expects, which is typically different from the interface provided by the adaptee.

  • Adaptee: This is the existing class or system that needs to be adapted. It has an incompatible interface that doesn't match the client's expectations.

  • Adapter: This is the adapter class or object that bridges the gap between the target and the adaptee. It implements the target interface while internally delegating the requests to the adaptee.

Here's a visual representation of the structure:


To help you understand the Adapter Design Pattern more concretely, let's take a look at a pseudocode example:

class Target {
    operation(): void {}

class Adaptee {
    specificOperation(): void {}

class Adapter extends Target {
    private adaptee: Adaptee;

    constructor(adaptee: Adaptee) {
        this.adaptee = adaptee;

    operation(): void {
        // Translate the operation into the appropriate Adaptee method calls

In this example, the Target class defines the expected interface, the Adaptee class represents the existing class with an incompatible interface, and the Adapter class acts as the bridge between them.


The Adapter Design Pattern is applicable in various scenarios, including:

  • Integrating existing code or libraries into new projects without modifying their source code
  • Making incompatible classes or systems work together harmoniously
  • Enabling communication between different systems with different interfaces
  • Reusing code and components while maintaining flexibility and modularity

How to Implement

To implement the Adapter Design Pattern, follow these steps:

  1. Identify the incompatible classes or interfaces that need to work together.

  2. Define the target interface that represents the client's expectations.

  3. Create an adapter class that implements the target interface.

  4. Inside the adapter class, create an instance of the adaptee class and delegate the target interface methods to corresponding methods of the adaptee class.

  5. Modify the client code to use the adapter class instead of the original class.

By following these steps, you can seamlessly integrate different components or systems with incompatible interfaces.

Pros and Cons

Like any design pattern, the Adapter Design Pattern has its advantages and disadvantages. Let's explore them:


  • Code reusability: The pattern allows you to reuse existing classes or systems without modifying their source code.
  • Flexibility: You can easily adapt new classes or systems into your project by creating an appropriate adapter.
  • Easy maintenance: Instead of modifying existing code, you can create adapters to handle interface incompatibilities.
  • Modularity: The pattern promotes modularity by separating the target interface from the adaptee's implementation.


  • Increased complexity: The use of adapters adds an additional layer of complexity to the codebase.
  • Performance overhead: The adapter may introduce overhead due to the translation of requests between the target and adaptee interfaces.
  • Potential for inconsistencies: If the adaptee class changes its interface, the adapter may become inconsistent and require updates.

Relations with Other Patterns

The Adapter Design Pattern has connections with other design patterns. Let's briefly explore some of these relations:

  • Bridge Pattern: The bridge pattern focuses on decoupling abstraction from implementation, while the adapter pattern works on adapting one interface to another. Together, these patterns can provide flexibility and extensibility in system design.

  • Decorator Pattern: The decorator pattern allows additional behavior to be added to an object dynamically. While the adapter pattern changes the interface of an object, the decorator pattern enhances its functionality.

  • Facade Pattern: The facade pattern provides a simple interface to a complex system. In some cases, an adapter may act as a facade by providing a simplified interface to the adaptee's complex functionality.

  • Composite Pattern: When using the adapter pattern with a composite structure, the adapter can adapt the interface of individual components within the composite, allowing clients to treat them uniformly.

These patterns complement each other and can be combined to address more complex software design challenges.

Code Examples

Let's dive into code examples to see the Adapter Design Pattern in action. We'll provide examples in various programming languages to assist a wide audience of developers.

Java Example:

// Target interface
interface MediaPlayer {
    void play(String audioType, String fileName);

// Adaptee class
class MP3Player {
    void playMP3(String fileName) {
        System.out.println("Playing MP3 file: " + fileName);

// Class adapter
class MP3Adapter implements MediaPlayer {
    private final MP3Player mp3Player;

    public MP3Adapter() {
        this.mp3Player = new MP3Player();

    public void play(String audioType, String fileName) {
        if (audioType.equalsIgnoreCase("mp3")) {

// Client code
class Client {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        MediaPlayer mediaPlayer = new MP3Adapter();"mp3", "song.mp3");

Python Example:

# Target interface
class MediaPlayer:
    def play(self, audio_type: str, file_name: str):

# Adaptee class
class MP3Player:
    def play_mp3(self, file_name: str):
        print(f"Playing MP3 file: {file_name}")

# Object adapter
class MP3Adapter(MediaPlayer):
    def __init__(self):
        self.mp3_player = MP3Player()

    def play(self, audio_type: str, file_name: str):
        if audio_type.lower() == "mp3":

# Client code
media_player = MP3Adapter()"mp3", "song.mp3")

These examples demonstrate how the Adapter Design Pattern can be implemented in popular programming languages. Feel free to adapt these examples to your specific needs and programming language of choice.


Here are some frequently asked questions about the Adapter Design Pattern:

When should I use the Adapter pattern?

You should use the Adapter pattern when you need to make incompatible classes or systems work together without modifying their source code. It allows you to adapt the interface of an existing class or system to match the interface expected by the client.

What is the Adapter pattern vs wrapper?

The Adapter pattern and wrapper have similar goals, but they differ in their intent. The Adapter pattern focuses on adapting the interface of an existing class or system to match the client's expectations. On the other hand, the wrapper is used to add additional behavior or functionality to an object without changing its interface.

What is adapter vs adaptor design pattern?

The terms "adapter" and "adaptor" are interchangeable and refer to the same design pattern. The term "adapter" is more commonly used in the software development community, while "adaptor" is often used in other contexts.

These questions provide clarification on common doubts and distinctions related to the Adapter Design Pattern.

Here are some useful resources to further explore the Adapter Design Pattern:

These links will provide you with additional insights, examples, and perspectives on the Adapter Design Pattern.

The information presented in this article draws from the following sources:

We recommend referring to these sources for a deeper understanding of design patterns and their application.

Now that you're equipped with a comprehensive understanding of the Adapter Design Pattern, it's time to embrace its potential in your software projects. The ability to seamlessly integrate incompatible classes and systems will enhance code reusability, maintainability, and flexibility. So go ahead, bridge the gaps, and adapt to new possibilities with the Adapter Design Pattern!

*[2023]: current year


Jacob is a software engineer with over 2 decades of experience in the field. His experience ranges from working in fortune 500 retailers, to software startups as diverse as the the medical or gaming industries. He has full stack experience and has even developed a number of successful mobile apps and games.

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